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The article "Tamtoc" was originally published in a different form in Archaeology, Volume 62, Number 4, July/August 2010.
Archaeologist Gordon Ekholm, curator of Mesoamerican archaeology at New York's American Museum of Natural History, explored the Huasteca in the 1940s. Some of his photographs, artifacts, stratigraphic studies and analyses can be found at the Museum's "Archaeology of the Huasteca: The Ekholm Collection."
Patricio Davila and Diana Zaragoza discovered artifacts in the Huasteca that seem to come from the Mississippian culture in what is now the midwest and southern United States. The Mississippian's most important and powerful urban center was Cahokia.
Tim Tucker, president of the MesoAmerican Research Foundation, and Miguel Medina Jaen, an archaeologist at Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Historia and Arqueologia, were instrumental in my research for this article. Their website describing the Foundation's research into the MC2 is here.
Havard scholar David Carrasco led the team that explored the MC2 and, with Scott Sessions, edited Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest. I am indebted to him for his time, ideas and advice.
The late Angeles Espinosa Yglesias rescued and restored the MC2 and funded publication of Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest. She also created and endowed the remarkable Museo Amparo in Puebla, Mexico.
The identification of  the altepetl symbols in the Codex Mendoza are taken from Brian Tomaszewski's "Reconstructing Aztec Political Geographies."
The discussion of the fountain and mural in the cloister of Cuauhtinchan's San Juan Bautista church is drawn from Pablo Escalante Gonzalbo's paper "El patrocinio del arte indocristiano", en Patrocinio, colección y circulación de las artes, México, UNAM, 1997, p. 215-235.
Many thanks to Ann Seiferle-Valencia for our discussions about her archaeological research, the MC2, and the town of Cuauhtinchan. She describes her excavations in her thesis "Before the Eagle's Nest: the Formative Period archaeology of Cuauhtinchan Viejo, Puebla, Mexico" available at the Harvard Library.
You can see details of Charles Higham’s recent excavations in Cambodia and Thailand at his website The Origins of Angkor.
Charles Higham’s archaeological digs and scores of other important research and preservation projects around the world depend on volunteers from the Earthwatch Institute for their success. To participate, visit the Earthwatch website.
For some fantastic 360 degree panoramas of Angkor Wat, Ban Chiang, and more than 150 other UNESCO World Heritage sites go to World Heritage Tour.
Warren Perry has posted a discussion of his goals and hopes for archaeology and African Diaspora Studies at Central Connecticut State University at
To learn more about the African Burial Ground, visit the official site It contains a history of the project, as well as the archaeological team's extensive final report.
For a thorough overview of slavery in the North, visit
You can learn more about patriot Silas Deane's slaves and see a photograph of a cosmogram at “Enslaved in Silas Deane's House", part of an interesting and extensive website about Deane's life and times hosted by the Webb-Deane-Stevens Museum in Wethersfield, Connecticut.
The Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society has a terrific presentation about the end of the United States Slave Trade at
You can learn more about Helike at the home page of the Helike Project .
John Noble Wilford wrote about Helike for the New York Times:  Scientists Unearth Urban Center More Ancient Than Plato. New York Times, 2 December 2003.
Carlos Zarikian, who analyzed marine fossils for the Helike Project, has posted a scientific examination of the Helike drill cores in “Environmental Analysis of Cores from the Helike Delta.”
To learn about how ground penetrating radar was used to find ancient Helike ruins, visit “The Search for Ancient Helike.”
For Justin's own gateway to his databases, essays, and scholarship visit
The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art, by Linda Schele and Mary Miller, with photographs by Justin Kerr, remains the most powerful introduction to the ancient Maya.
The Art of the Maya Scribe by Mike Coe and Justin Kerr is a fascinating exploration of the world of the scribe's role at court and in Maya iconography.
Michael Coe's Breaking the Maya Code tells the story of how generations of Maya scholars cracked the code of Maya hieroglyphics.
One of Justin's most important achievements has been his contribution to the conception and creation of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI). On the web, visit, FAMSI's home page Here you can access a wealth of material about the ancient Maya and current research, as well as Justin's photographic databases.
You can purchase the six volumes of The Maya Vase Books through either Justin's or the  FAMSI websites.  

Merle and her team have assembled a fantastic series of Web sites.
Mesoweb serves as the main site, linking to her own and many other important Mesoamerican web sites.
Of special note are Merle's foundation, the Precolumbian Art Research Institute and information about Palenque at the Palenque Project.
You can see Merle's rubbings at her database, "Rubbings of Maya Sculpture."
Check out  Arlen Chase's reports on his excavations at Caracol.

This article first appeared in Archaeology.
NASA's Archaeology Homepage reviews the agency's work in Guatemala, Arizona, Costa Rica, and New Mexico.
NASA, the Air Force, and Global Science and Technology Inc. provide a thorough on-line Remote Sensing Tutorial.
See some astonishing photos at Space Imaging, which supplies satellite data to the NASA archaeology program.
Visit Dan Irwin's Viva La Selva to find out about his efforts to improve life in San Andres, Guatemala.

This article first appeared in Archaeology.
The Laboratory of Tree Ring Research is the oldest dendrochronology center in the world.
The Ancient Bristlecone Pine page is a beautiful website and features a wealth of bristlecone information.
If you're visiting the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, click here for helpful travel and lodging information for nearby Bishop, California.
Consult the  Ultimate Tree Ring Pages for everything you may ever need to know about dendrochronology.